Superfície Terrestre - Projeção - Mapa. So which projection is better? However, it can accurately be zoomed into a local scale with precision. What are the strengths and weaknesses of their projections? If a navigator wishes to sail from Spain to the West Indies using this map, all they have to do is draw a line between the two points. This is why Mercator beats out Peters in the world of cartography, and why Google Maps uses a modified Mercator projection. New believers in the Peters map were vociferous in demanding the use of this newer, better map. Finally, in 1998, the Society began using the Winkel Tripel projection, which features an even better balance between size and shape than the Robinson projection. This tells them which compass direction to continually sail in until they reach their destination. Mercator map enthusiasts defend the ease of navigation of their map. But simply closing yourself off to any further discussion of or support for the point isn't going to help you in any way. Peters vs Mercator According to The Guardian, the Mercator projection, by pushing the equator below the halfway line of the map, while handier for representing navigation routes, exaggerates the size of land masses in the northern hemisphere. Most alternative projections now in use, such as Robinson, Van der Grinten, or Eckert IV, still do not preserve the quality of ‘equal area’. The Peters simply isn’t … The Gall-Peter’s map projection was first published by James Gall in 1855. Gall-Peters projection (Wikimedia Commons) In a development that just might make academic cartographers pull out their remaining hair in frustration, Boston’s public schools began using the Peters projection in social studies classes last week.The news coverage (see the Grauniad’s) is the usual straw man argument about the Mercator and the false dichotomy between it and the Peters… Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Mercator has become the default option for online mapmaking, simply because so many data visualization maps rely on Google Maps or OpenStreetMap … But here's how each came to prominence and, in most cases, misuse. But the popularity of the Peters Projection was likely due to a lack of knowledge about basic cartography, as this projection is still quite flawed. A projeção de Mercator é um marco na história da cartografia por ser uma das primeiras a mostrar o planeta inteiro. Proponents of the Peters projection map claim that their map is an accurate, fair, and unbiased depiction of the world when comparing theirs to the almost-defunct Mercator map, which features enlarged depictions of euro-centric countries and continents. Except where otherwise noted, images on this site are by Tobias Jung and are … Os meridianos e paralelos cruzavam-se sempre em um ângulo reto, o que permitia, com uma bússola na mão, aos navegadores orientarem-se pelos pontos cardeais e colaterais. Maybe it's an extreme oversimplification to say that the Mercator projection is racist, or maybe it's not true on any level. In 1986 it was referred to as the Gall-Peter … Total Points. All claims made by advocates for the Peters projection about Mercator distortion are correct, though one map being less wrong than the other doesn't make either map "right". The Peters … This is why Mercator beats out Peters in the world of cartography, and why Google Maps uses a modified Mercator projection. In 1989, seven North American professional geographic organizations (including the American Cartographic Association, National Council for Geographic Education, Association of American Geographers, and the National Geographic Society) adopted a resolution that called for a ban on all rectangular coordinate maps, including the Mercator and Peters projections. It became the standard map projection for nautical purposes because of its ability to represent lines of constant course, known as rhumb lines or loxodromes, as … In addition, Mercator only distorts longitudinal distances (except very close to the poles), whereas Peters screws up the scale almost everywhere for both longitude and latitude. Unfortunately, geographers and cartographers agree that neither map projection is appropriate—the Mercator vs. Peters controversy is, therefore, a moot point. A Mercator vs. Peters controvérsia é realmente um ponto discutível. In addition, Mercator only distorts longitudinal distances (except very close to the poles), whereas Peters screws up the scale almost everywhere for both longitude and latitude. Ela é uma projeção conforme. and to defend the Mercator projection. Com a ajuda do astrolábio e com as coordenadas do mapa, os navegado res conseguiam determinar a latitude e realizar suas viagens com mais segurança. Gall – Peters projection is a equal-area cylindrical projection that named after James Gall and Arno Peters. Both maps are rectangular projections that are poor representations of a spherical planet. Africa, for example, is depicted as smaller than North America when it is, in reality, three times larger. Namely, the Mercator projection minimizes non-European or American countries and continents while enlarging privileged world powers. This map's grid is rectangular and lines of latitude and longitude are parallel throughout. It was presented by German historian and journalist Arno Peters in 1973 (Rosenberg, 2013), who claimed that the map created by Gall – Peters projection are more fairly than the widely accepted map, Mercator projection … Todos os mapas são representações gráficas e planas da superfície terrestre. It became the standard map projection for navigation because it is unique in representing north as up and south as down everywhere while preserving local … Who were Mercator and Peters? The Mercator projection (/ m ər ˈ k eɪ t ər /) is a cylindrical map projection presented by Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. One of the characteristics, of area, shape or direction, must be sacrificed. Map Projections: Mercator Vs The True Size of Each Country. Servia, assim, às pretensões dos países subdesenvolvidos, principalmente africanos e asiáticos, que conseguiram sua independência política durante o processo de descolonização do pós-Guerra. While the Peters projection does (almost) represent land area accurately, all map projections distort the shape of the earth, a sphere. The Mercator Projection. Assim, no século XVI, com as Grandes Navegações, foi criada a visão eurocêntrica do mundo, materializada na cartografia: o norte, onde se localiza a Europa, aparece acima do sul nos mapas. What Are Latitude and Longitude Lines on Maps? The National Geographic Society adopted the Van der Grinten projection, which encloses the world in a circle, in 1922. ", The Distance Between Degrees of Latitude and Longitude. Get started! In reality, the Mercator map was never intended to be used as a wall map and by the time Peters started complaining about it, the Mercator map was well on its way out of fashion anyway. However, the Peters projection came to be seen as the lesser of two evils. Essa projeção mantém a equivalência das áreas de países e continentes; assim, os países aparecem do tamanho que realmente são. Advertisement. Try this amazing Mercator And Gall Peters Map Projections quiz which has been attempted 80 times by avid quiz takers. Compare the map projections Mercator and Miller. In 1988, they switched to the Robinson projection, on which high latitudes are less distorted in size than in shape in an attempt to more accurately capture the three-dimensional shape of the earth in a two-dimensional figure. Non-rectangular maps have been around for a long time. Embora o mapa-múndi de Peters continue expressando uma visão eurocêntrica do mundo, é visível o destaque dado aos países de baixa latitude, os quais, na projeção de Mercator, tinham suas áreas subestimadas. The Peters Projection world map is one of the most stimulating, and controversial, images of the world. As Mercator maps were already spiraling into obsoletion, a historian attempted to speed up this process by presenting a new map. He promoted it as a superior alternative to the Mercator projection, which was suited to navigation but also used commonly in world maps. These are the projections that you are most likely to see today. Game Points. Mercator colocou os meridianos perpendicularmente, um do lado do outro, cortando os paralelos. However, because most people are happily unaware of this notion, they will look at a Mercator projection and believe Greenland is bigger than Africa. Por essa razão é chamada de projeção equivalente. At this time it was simply called the Gall orthographic. Iniciava-se, assim, a mundialização do capitalismo com suas técnicas de produção e de comercialização. Até hoje, ela é utilizada na navegação marítima, principalmente pelo fato de acentuar as áreas em altas latitudes, destacando as regiões polares. But although this angular layout makes navigation easier, accuracy and bias are major disadvantages that can't be ignored. Compromise projections like the Robinson and Winkel Tripel are far superior to their predecessors because they present the world as globe-like, making them worthy of support from almost all geographers. The Mercator map was designed as an aid to navigators with straight lines, loxodromes or rhumb lines—representing lines of constant compass bearing—that are perfect for "true" direction. The Mercator map has always been inadequate as a world map due to its rectangular grid and shape, but geographically illiterate publishers once found it useful for designing wall, atlas, and book maps, even maps found in newspapers published by non-geographers. Ambos os mapas são projeções retangulares e são representações pobres do planeta. Actions. German historian and journalist Arno Peters called a press conference in 1973 to announce his "new" map projection that treated each country fairly by representing their areas more accurately. In a 1980s study, two British geographers discovered that the Mercator map did not exist among dozens of atlases examined. Gall-Peters Mercator; Creator: James Gall / Arno Peters (1852 / 1967) Gerardus Mercator (1569) Group: Cylindric: Cylindric: Property: Equal-area: Conformal: Other Names: Gall Orthographic; Peters projection — Remarks: Original design by James Gall, independently developed again by Arno Peters in 1967 and presented to the … The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. Projeções de Mercator e Peters Entre as projeções cartográficas existentes ao longo do tempo, as mais conhecidas são as projeções de Mercator e Peters , no entanto existem outros tipos de projeções , classificados de acordo com a superfície de projeção (planas, cônicas ou cilíndricas) e de acordo com as propriedades … Map found via reddit, click for larger version. Skilled at marketing, Arno claimed that his map displayed third world countries more subjectively than the popular but highly distorted Mercator projection map. Therefore, Peters argued, the Mercator projection shows a euro-centric bias and harms the world's perception of developing countries. Peters only chose to compare his strange-looking map to the Mercator map because he knew that the latter was an inappropriate representation of the earth, but so was his. So, the correct tool in this case is the world mapped using the Peters projection. The Prime Meridian: Establishing Global Time and Space, M.A., Geography, California State University - Northridge, B.A., Geography, University of California - Davis. Mercator and Peters explain all in the Chat Show. And how do their projections affect our view of the world? Today's Rank--0. November 11, 2018 7 Comments. Ignorant statements like "Only now are the first non-chauvinistic maps being produced without bias to any one region of the earth. The Peters projection map uses a rectangular coordinate system that shows parallel lines of latitude and longitude. In 1967, Arno Peters, a German filmmaker, devised a map projection identical to Gall's orthographic projection and presented it in 1973 as a "new invention". It became the standard map projection for most applications and is still cemented as the mental map of most westerners today. The Mercator vs. Peters controversy is truly a moot point. Pro-Peters folks often argue that this projection merely advantages colonial powers while disadvantaging others. Entre as projeções cartográficas existentes ao longo do tempo, as mais conhecidas são as projeções de Mercator e Peters, no entanto existem outros tipos de projeções, classificados de acordo com a superfície de projeção (planas, cônicas ou cilíndricas) e de acordo com as propriedades (equivalentes, conformes e equidistantes). You need to get 100% to score the 6 points available. Peters is an equal-area projection which became the centrepiece of a controversy surrounding the political implications of map design. In essence, the Peters projection was a response to a question that had already been answered. Mercator’s projection was designed in the 16th century for navigational use but was adopted, inappropriately, for use as a world reference map. Many feel that these discrepancies reflect racism and prejudice against underprivileged and developing countries. Fortunately, over the past few decades, the Mercator projection has fallen into disuse by most reliable sources. Even the United Nations Development Programme began using the Peters projection in its maps. Isso porque os europeus estavam conquistando e dominando territórios e povos e, por isso, sentiam-se superiores. Mas aqui é como cada um ganhou destaque e, na maioria dos casos, o uso indevido. Also explore over 42 similar quizzes in this category. Assim, a Europa, além de ficar no centro e na parte de cima do mapa, ficou maior do que é na realidade, reforçando, simbolicamente, sua posição de superioridade. Matt Rosenberg is an award-winning geographer and the author of "The Handy Geography Answer Book" and "The Geography Bee Complete Preparation Handbook. A tendência dos povos de valorizarem sua cultura e seu modo de vida, considerando-se modelo para todos os demais, denomina-se etnocentrismo. When this map was first introduced by historian and cartographer Dr. Arno Peters at a Press Conference in Germany in 1974 it generated a firestorm of debate. O mapa de Mercator representa o mundo visto pelos europeus de acordo com seus interesses. Essa visão foi consolidada com o passar do tempo. "The West Wing" Season 2 Episode 16 The Mercator, however, makes the North look much larger. But what to replace them with? Once again, the Gall-Peters vs Mercator argument has come up. Mercator, ao contrário de árabes e italianos, colocou o norte na parte de cima do seu mapa. Entretanto, quando foi assinado o Acordo de Washington, em 1884, entre Estados Unidos e Reino Unido, tomou-se o Meridiano de Greenwich como referencial de longitude e de fuso horário. Outra projeção que merece destaque é a de Peters, reelaborada em 1952 pelo historiador alemão Arno Peters e publicada, pela primeira vez, em 1973. Como a Terra é esférica (na realidade, uma geoide), qualquer lugar na superfície pode ser o centro, de acordo com pontos de vista e interesses diversos. Both maps are rectangular projections and are poor representations of the planet. The Arno Peters Projection is recent, from 1973, but inspired by the Gall Projection from the 19th century. Start studying Mercator vs. Peters Projection. MERCATOR vs PETERS Projeções de Mercator e Peters: Diferentes maneiras de ver o Mundo! Today 's Points. 0. There's a lot you could say there. They insisted that organizations switch to the "fairer" map immediately. All claims made by advocates for the Peters projection about Mercator distortion are correct, though one map being less wrong than the other … Foi elaborada no século XVI com a expansão marítima europeia. Compare these to this map which corrects for distortions and preserves the true size and shape of Greenland at low … Peters only chose to compare his strange-looking map to the Mercator map because he knew that the latter was an inappropriate representation of the earth, but so was his. Though some major map companies with less than reputable credentials still produce some maps using the Mercator projection, these are widely dismissed. Map projections: Mercator vs Gall-Peters learn by taking a quiz; Online quiz to learn Map projections: Mercator vs Gall-Peters; Your Skills & Rank. Some say that because Arno Peters worked at a time when worldwide decolonization was coming to an end, he tried to reset the cartographic representation of the world by taking away the importance of the western world in the maps designed so far according to Mercator Projection. To highlight the difference in distortion at low and high latitudes, I've superimposed Greenland over Africa in all three projections. 6. We will start by explaining the original purpose of the Mercator projection, designed with rhumb lines in order to assist sailors in navigation, and then continue to explain the history of the Peters projection as well as the intentions aimed at improving the political inequality presented in the Mercator. In many ways the past debates over the Mercator are moot: arguing over the right projection for wall-sized world maps—Mercator vs. Peters vs. Robinson—is fighting the last war. While it’s well known that the mercator projection distorts the world, the maps here show very clearly by how much. A projeção de Peters invertida mostra o mundo na visão terceiro-mundista do planeta, considerando-se o momento histórico em que ela surgiu. Today, relatively few use either the Peters or Mercator map, yet the evangelizing continues. One of us! As we have learned, the Mercator is not a good overall scaled map when viewing large areas. A projeção de Mercator distorce muito o tamanho das terras, principalmente as localizadas em altas latitudes, mas preserva a forma de continentes e países. Mercator VS. Peters The Superhuman section spent their class time today researching the difference between Peters Projection maps and the traditional Mercator map. The Mercator projection was developed in 1569 by Gerardus Mercator as a navigational tool.