Etude de cas : La Grande Mosquée de Damas. The covering of the prayer hall consists of painted ceilings decorated with vegetal motifs and two domes: one raised at the beginning of the central nave and the other in front of the mihrab. The combination formed by the courtyard and the galleries that surround it covers an immense area whose dimensions are about 90 metres long and 72 metres in width. [Georges Marçais] Home. Plan de Kairouan publié par un voyageur britannique (1882). A portico with double row of arches precede the spacious prayer hall, which takes the shape of a rectangle of 70.6 metres in width and 37.5 metres' depth. [24] Around 862–863, Emir Abu Ibrahim enlarged the oratory, with three bays to the north, and added the cupola over the arched portico which precedes the prayer hall. »[36], Today, the enclosure of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is pierced by nine gates (six opening on the courtyard, two opening on the prayer hall and a ninth allows access to the maqsura) some of them, such as Bab Al-Ma (gate of water) located on the western façade, are preceded by salient porches flanked by buttresses and surmounted by ribbed domes based on square tholobate which are porting squinches with three vaults. [39] Despite its construction at the end of the thirteenth century, Bab Lalla Rihana blends well with all of the building mainly dating from the ninth century. !Contenu très riche. Several centuries after its founding, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the subject of numerous descriptions by Arab historians and geographers in the Middle Ages. ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ l b b b b 2 æ$ æ$ æ$ æ$ 4 % | 2 V ¼ ¢% ´&. The stories concern mainly the different phases of construction and expansion of the sanctuary, and the successive contributions of many princes to the interior decoration (mihrab, minbar, ceilings, etc.). It is longer (127.60 metres) on the east side than the west (125.20 metres), and shorter on the north side (72.70 metres) than the south (78 metres). [58] From the outside, the dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][58] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. [51], The interior includes a staircase of 129 steps, surmounted by a barrel vault, which gives access to the terraces and the first tier of the minaret. Although it has existed for more than eleven centuries, all panels, with the exception of nine, are originals and are in a good state of conservation, the fineness of the execution of the minbar makes it a great masterpiece of Islamic wood carving referring to Paul Sebag. [20], Under the rule of the Aghlabid dynasty, Kairouan was at its apogee, and the mosque profited from this period of stability and prosperity. [12] The front façade of the porch has a large horseshoe arch relied on two marble columns and surmounted by a frieze adorned with a blind arcade, all crowned by serrated merlons (in a sawtooth arrangement). Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. [44], View of the courtyard on the side of the prayer hall facade, Porch topped with a ribbed dome rising in the middle of the south portico of the courtyard, Courtyard seen from one of the arched galleries, Portico located on the eastern side of the courtyard, Interior view of the eastern portico of the courtyard, Interior view of the western portico of the courtyard. La grande mosquée de Kairouan se trouve à Kairouan, en Tunisie.Elle a été bâtie dans la seconde moitié du VIIe siècle par Obka ibn Nafi, le fondateur de la ville.Elle a été reconstruite au IX e siècle pendant la dynastie aghlabide.. »[22]. Featuring kufic character suras are written in gold on vellum dyed with indigo, they are distinguished by a compact graph with no marks for vowels. Centre italien d’études du haut Moyen Âge, Lucien Golvin, « Le mihrab de Kairouan Â», Kunst des Orients, vol. [12], During the thirteenth century, new gates were opened, the most remarkable, Bab Lalla Rihana dated from 1293, is located on the eastern wall of the enclosure. Kairouan (UNESCO/NHK) - Duration: … [39], Wall and porches on the west facade (south side), Close view of one of the entrances of the west facade, View of the middle of the southern facade, Gate of Bab Lalla Rihana (late thirteenth century), Close view of the lower part of Bab Lalla Rihana, Blind arcade decorating the upper part of Bab Lalla Rihana. [82] Among all the pulpits of the Muslim world, it is certainly the oldest example of minbar still preserved today. Carefully executed in relief, it represents one of the most beautiful epigraphic bands of Islamic art. At the end of the nineteenth century, the French writer Guy de Maupassant expresses in his book La vie errante (The Wandering Life), his fascination with the majestic architecture of the Great Mosque of Kairouan as well as the effect created by countless columns: "The unique harmony of this temple consists in the proportion and the number of these slender shafts upholding the building, filling, peopling, and making it what it is, create its grace and greatness. Those in white marble come from Italy,[60] some shafts located in the area of the mihrab are in red porphyry imported from Egypt,[73] while those made of greenish or pink marble are from quarries of Chemtou, in the north-west of current Tunisia. [66] This sumptuous door, which has four leaves richly carved with geometric motifs embossed on the bottom of foliages and interlacing stars, is decorated at the typanum by a stylised vase from which emerge winding stems and leaves. En nous approchant davantage, un homme qui passe par là… nous propose de nous guider jusqu’à la mosquée. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. Le plan de la mosquée reprend le plan de la maison de Mahomet à Médine. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. These are the oldest fund of Maliki legal literature to have survived.[87]. Activités éducatives (Carte Interactive): schéma d'une mosquée (histoire - cinquieme - islam) - Le schéma d'une mosquée pour repérer les différentes parties caractéristiques de l'architecture de ce lieu de culte musulman. "Soha Gaafar et Marwa Mourad, « La Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, un maillon clé dans l'histoire de l'architecture Â», Lucien Golvin, « Quelques réflexions sur la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan à la période des Aghlabides Â», pp. The beginning of each surah is indicated by a band consisting of a golden stylised leafy foliage, dotted with red and blue, while the verses are separated by silver rosettes. The main minaret is centered on the north. Français : Vue intérieure du portique situé du côté occidental de la cour de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, en Tunisie. Nous le remercions gentiment en continuant notre route. [12][37] However, Arab geographers and historians of the Middle Ages Al-Muqaddasi and Al-Bakri reported the existence, around the tenth and eleventh centuries, of about ten gates named differently from today. Their colorful multitude gives the eye the impression of unlimited". La Grande Mosquée de Kairouan - Lieux Saints et Sites sacrés de Tunisie - Duration: 4:53. The horizontal sundial located in the courtyard, One of the courtyard's capitals surmounted by a small vertical sundial, Detail of arches and columns of the north portico of the courtyard, View of the impluvium which collects the rainwater and feeds the underground cistern, The minaret, which occupies the centre of the northern façade of the complex's enclosure, is 31.5 metres tall and is seated on a square base of 10.7 metres on each side. page 404, Henri Saladin, Tunis et Kairouan, The building is a vast slightly irregular quadrilateral covering some 9,000 m2. It consists of three tapering levels, the last of which is topped with a small ribbed dome that was most probably built later than the rest of the tower. SFCG_Tunisia 5,257 views. [78], The mosque's mihrab, whose decor is a remarkable witness of Muslim art in the early centuries of Islam, is distinguished by its harmonious composition and the quality of its ornaments. La présence d’une importante communauté juive à Kairouan confirme cette tolérance, et le statut de Kairouan. [18] In 774, a new reconstruction accompanied by modifications and embellishments[19] took place under the direction of the Abbasid governor Yazid ibn Hatim. À travers le monde musulman, les mosquées sont toutes bâties sur ce plan, même si la décoration varie. Covered with a thick coating completely painted, the concavity of the arch is decorated with intertwined scrolls enveloping stylised five-lobed vine leaves, three-lobed florets and sharp clusters, all in yellow on midnight blue background.[81]. Abstract. Editions Oxford University Press, The rainwater collector or impluvium, probably the work of the Muradid Bey Mohamed Bey al-Mouradi (1686–1696), is an ingenious system that ensures the capture (with the slightly sloping surface of the courtyard) then filtering stormwater at a central basin furnished with horseshoe arches sculpted in white marble. ÐÏࡱá > þÿ þÿÿÿ Kairouan. These tiles are mainly decorated with floral and plant motifs (stylised flowers, palm leaves and asymmetrical leaves on bottom hatch and checkered) belong to two series: one polychrome characterised by a greater richness of tones ranging from light gold to light, dark or ocher yellow, and from brick-red to brown lacquer, the other monochrome is a beautiful luster that goes from smoked gold to green gold. The boards painted under the Hafsid period (during the thirteenth century) offers a floral decor consists of white and blue arches entwined with lobed green. Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, vantail de la grande porte de la salle de prière.jpg 1,067 × 1,600; 2.75 MB Grande Mosquée Kairouan 3.jpg 3,086 × 4,115; 9.45 MB Great Mosque Kairouan Columns Prayer Hall.jpg 2,572 × 1,710; 624 KB Fondée en même temps que la ville de Kairouan par les conquérants (ghuzât) musulmans, en l’an 50 de l’Hégire (670 ap. Il érigea la grande mosquée de Kairouan, qui demeure l'un des plus prestigieux monuments de l'Islam. Grande Mosquée de Kairouan - J-A Brutails - Université Bordeaux Montaigne - 1692.jpg 3,140 × 4,509; 1.05 MB Kairouan Minaret (39733812671).jpg 1,024 × 768; 159 KB Vue aérienne de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan - aerial view of Kairouan's Great Mosque.jpg 1,700 × 949; 1.2 MB Comme nous nous y attendions, notre « guide » veut nous faire entrer dans une boutique. Le plancher de la mosquée, à l’endroit où la … [2] Its perimeter, of about 405 metres (1,329 ft), contains a hypostyle prayer hall, a marble-paved courtyard and a square minaret. Fondée en 670, la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan est un des plus prestigieux sanctuaires musulmans au monde. [52][57], View of the second and third storeys of the minaret, Close view of one of the Roman stones (with Latin inscriptions) reused at the base of the minaret, Wall and windows of the south facade of the minaret, The Mosque has several domes, the largest being over the mihrab and the entrance to the prayer hall from the courtyard. This dome, whose construction goes back to the first half of the ninth century (towards 836), is one of the oldest and most remarkable domes in the western Islamic world. A legend says they could not count them without going blind. However given the natural lay of the land crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city spread southwards. Imp… He then made the mihrab. Le long de ce mur, à l’intérieur de la salle de prière, sont indiqués deux éléments architecturaux fondamentaux dans une mosquée :- le mihrab, niche symbolisant la présence de Mahomet ;- le mimbar, endroit où est lu le It was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began. The minaret served as a watchtower, as well as to call the faithful to prayer. 69–77. le portail de référence, vous allez découvrir un patrimoine culturel et historique impressionnant de la ville de Kairouan classée héritage mondial par l’Unesco et prix Agha Khan d’architecture.. Plus de 600 pages web 350 rubriques et près de 2.000 images ! Located in the north-east of the medina of Kairouan, the mosque is in the intramural district of Houmat al-Jami (literally "area of the Great Mosque"). [62], The central nave, a sort of triumphal alley which leads to the mihrab,[63] is significantly higher and wider than the other sixteen aisles of the prayer hall.